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Full text of "GSO 1843: Food Grade Salt"

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Gulf Cooperation Council 



^ EDICT OF GOVERNMENT ^Sl 



In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, 
a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, 
this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it 
is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them. 



GSO 1843 (2010) (English) : Food Grade Salt 



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BLANK PAGE 




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PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT 



GCC STANDARDIZATION ORGANIZATION (GSO) 



Draft: Final 



GSO 5/FDS/1843 :2010(E) 



Food Grade Salt 



Prepared by: 
Gulf technical committee for the specifications of food & agricultural products 

sector 

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT GULF STANDARD CIRCULATED FOR COMMENTS. 
IT IS , THEREFORE , SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE RFERRED TO AS 
A GULF STANDARD UNTIL ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



ICS: 67,220,20 



Food Grade Salt ^Ulai) ^ 



Date of approval: jjLajfrVt jjjU 

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GSO STANDARD GSO/1843:2010 

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.(WHO/NUT/96.13 

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Foreword 

Standardization Organization for GCC (GSO) is a regional Organization which consists of the 
National Standards Bodies of GCC member States. One of GSO main functions is to issue Gulf 
Standards /Technical regulation through specialized technical committees (TCs). 

GSO through the technical program of committee TC No. 5: " The Gulf technical committee for 
the specifications of food and agricultural products sector " has updated the Gulf Standard No. : 
GSO 1843/2007 " Food Grade Sah ". The Draft Standard has been prepared by (Kingdom of 
Bahrain) 

This standard has been approved as Gulf (Standard / Technical Regulation) with technical 
modifications as follows: 

- Addition of minimum & maximum levels for Iodine in food grade salt in GCC in accordance to 
WHO/NUT/96.13 for the year 2007. 
by GSO Board of Directors in its meeting No..../ held on / / /H, / / G 



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GSO STANDARD GSO/1843:2010 

FOOD GRADE SALT 

1. SCOPE 

This standard applies to salt used as an ingredient of food, both for direct sale to the consumer 
and for food manufacture. It applies also to salt used as a carrier of food additives and/or 
nutrients. Subject to the provisions of this standard more specific requirements for special needs 
may be applied. It does not apply to salt from origins other than those mentioned in Section 2, 
notably the salt which is a by-product of chemical industries. 

2, COMPLEMENTARY REFERENCES 

2.1 ISO 2479-1972 "Determination of matter insoluble in water or in acid and preparation of 
principal solutions for other determinations". 

2.2 ISO 2480-1972 "Determination of sulphate content - barium sulphate gravimetric method", 

2.3 ISO 2481-1973 "Determination of halogens, expressed as chlorine - mercurimetric method" 
(for the recovery of mercury from the laboratory waste, see Annex of ECSS/SC 183-1979), 

2.4 ISO 2482-1973 "Determination of calcium and magnesium contents - EDTA complexometric 
methods", 

2.5 ECSS/SC 183-1979 "Determination of potassium content by sodium tetraphenylborate 
volumetric method" or alternatively according to ECSS/SC 184-1979 "by flame atomic 
absorption spectropho tome trie method". 

2.6 ISO 2483-1973 "Determination of the loss of mass at 110°C". 

2.7 ECSS/SC 144-1977 "Determination of copper content - zinc dibenzyldithiocarbamate 
photometric method", 

2.8 method ECSS/SC 311-1982 "Determination of arsenic content - silver diethyldithiocarbamate 
photometric method", 

2.9 method ECSS/SC 312-1982 "Determination of total mercury content - cold vapour atomic 
absorption spectrometric method". 

2.10 method ECSS/SC 313-1982 "Determination of total lead content - flame atomic absorption 
spectrometric method". 

2.11 method ECSS/SC 314-1982 "Determination of total cadmium content - flame atomic 
absorption spectrometric method". 

2.12 method ESPA/CN 109/84 "Determination of total iodine content - titrimetric method using 
sodium thiosulfate". 

3,TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 
3,1 Food grade salt: 

is a crystalline product consisting predominantly of sodium chloride. It is obtained from the sea, 
from underground rock salt deposits or from natural brine. 

4, REQUIREMENTS 

4,1 ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS 

4.1.1 MINIMUM NaCl CONTENT 

The content of NaCl shall not be less than 97% on a dry matter basis, exclusive of additives. 

4.1.2 NATURALLY PRESENT SECONDARY PRODUCTS AND CONTAMINANTS 

The remainder comprises natural secondary products, which are present in varying amounts 
depending on the origin and the method of production of the salt, and which are composed 



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GSO STANDARD GSO/1843:2010 

mainly of calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium sulphates, carbonates, bromides, and of 
calcium, potassium, magnesium chlorides as well. Natural contaminants may also be present in 
amounts varying with the origin and the method of production of the salt. 

4.1.3 USE AS A CARRIER 

Food grade salt shall be used when salt is used as a carrier for food additives or nutrients for 
technological or public health reasons. Examples of such preparations are mixtures of salt with 
nitrate and/or nitrite (curing salt) and salt mixed with small amounts of fluoride, iodide or iodate, 
iron, vitamins, etc., and additives used to carry or stabilize such additions. 

4.1.4 lODISATION OF FOOD GRADE SALT 

In iodine-deficient areas, food grade salt shall be iodised to prevent iodine-deficiency disorders 
(IDD) for public health reasons. 

4.1.4.1 Iodine compounds 

For the fortification of food grade salt with iodine, use can be made of sodium and potassium 
iodides or iodates. 

4.1.4.2 Maximum and minimum levels 

The maximum and minimum levels used for the iodisation of food grade salt shall be 15-40 
ppm (parts per million) expressed as iodine 1 . 

4.1.4.3 Quality assurance 

The production of iodised food grade salt shall only be performed by reliable manufacturers 
having the knowledge and the equipment requisite for the adequate production of iodised food 
grade salt, and specifically, for the correct dosage and even intermixing. 

5, FOOD ADDITIVES 

5.1 All additives used shall be of food grade quality. 

5.2 ANTICAKING AGENTS Maximum level in finished product 

341 (iii) Tricalcium orthophosphate 20 g/kg 

170 (i) Calcium carbonate 
504 (i) Magnesium carbonate 
530 Magnesium oxide 

551 Silicon dioxide, amphorus 

552 Calcium silicate 

553 (i) Magnesium silicate } GMP 

554 Sodium aluminosilicate 
556 Calcium aluminium silicate 
470 Salts of myristic, palmitic or stearic acids 
(calcium, potassium, sodium) 
538 Calcium ferrocyanide 



536 Potassium ferrocyanide 
535 Sodium ferrocyanide ^ 



' As per WHO/NUT/96,13 for the year 2007. 



10 mg/kg, singly or in 
combination, as Fe (CN)6 



The maximum level for Sodium and Potassium ferrocyanides may be 20 mg/kg when used in the preparation of 
"dendritic " salt. 



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GSO STANDARD GSO/1843:2010 

5.3 EMULSIFIERS 

433 Polyxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate 10 mg/kg 

5.4 PROCESSING AID 

900a Polydimethylsiloxane ^ 10 mg residue/kg 

6. CONTAMINANTS 

Food grade salt may not contain contaminants in amounts and in such form that may be harmful 
to the health of the consumer. In particular the following maximum limits shall not be exceeded: 

6.1 ARSENIC 

- not more than 0.5 mg/kg expressed as As. 

6.2 COPPER 

- not more than 2 mg/kg expressed as Cu. 

6.3 LEAD 

- not more than 2 mg/kg expressed as Pb. 

6.4 CADMIUM 

- not more than 0.5 mg/kg expressed as Cd. 

6.5 MERCURY 

- not more than 0.1 mg/kg expressed as Hg. 

7. HYGIENE 

In order to ensure that proper standards of food hygiene are maintained until the product reaches 
the consumer, the method of production, packaging, storage and transportation of food grade salt 
shall be such as to avoid any risk of contamination. 

8. SAMPLING 

According to Appendix A. 

9. TEST METHODS 

9.1 DETERMINATION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT 

This method allows the calculation of sodium chloride content, as provided for in Section 4.1.1, 
on the basis of the results of the determinations of sulphate (Method 9.4), halogens (Method 9.5), 
calcium and magnesium (Method 9.6), potassium (Method 9.7) and loss on drying (Method 9.8). 
Convert sulphate to CaS04 and unused calcium to CaC12, unless sulphate in sample exceeds the 
amount necessary to combine with calcium, in which case convert calcium to CaS04 and unused 
sulphate first to MgS04 and any remaining sulphate to Na2S04. Convert unused magnesium to 
MgC12. Convert potassium to KCl. Convert unused halogens to NaCl. Report the NaCl content 
on a dry matter basis, multiplying the percentage NaCl by 100/100-P, where P is the percentage 
loss on drying. 

9.2 DETERMINATION OF INSOLUBLE MATTER 

According to clause 2.1. 



Polydimethylsiloxane is listed as an antifoam agent, lubricant, release and anti-stick agent and moulding aid (as 
Dimethylpolysiloxane) in the Codex Inven tory of Processing Aids. Polydimethylsiloxane is listed as an antifoaming 
agent, anticaking agent and emulsifier in the Codex International Numbering System for Food Additives. 



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9.3 DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE CONTENT 

According to clause 2.2. 

9.4 DETERMINATION OF HALOGENS ^ 

According to clause 2.3. 

9.5 DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTENTS 

According to clause 2.4. 

9.6 DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM CONTENT 

According to clause 2.5. 

9.7 DETERMINATION OF THE LOSS ON DRYING (CONVENTIONAL MOISTURE) 

According to clause 2.6. 

9.8 DETERMINATION OF COPPER CONTENT 

According to clause 2.7. 

9.9 DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC CONTENT 

According to clause 2.8. 

9.10 DETERMINATION OF MERCURY CONTENT 

According to clause 2.9. 

9.11 DETERMINATION OF LEAD CONTENT 

According to clause 2.10. 

9.12 DETERMINATION OF CADMIUM CONTENT 

According to clause 2.1 1. 

9.13 DETERMINATION OF IODINE CONTENT 

According to clause 2.12. 

10 PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE 

In any salt iodisation program, it is important to ensure that salt contains the recommended 
amount of iodine at the time of consumption. The retention of iodine in salt depends on the iodine 
compound used, the type of packaging, the exposure of the package to prevailing climatic 
conditions and the period of time between iodisation and consumption. To ensure that iodized 
salt ultimately reaches the consumer with the specified level of iodine, the following precautions 
may be taken into consideration by countries where climatic and storage conditions could result 
in a large amount of iodine loss: 

10.1 If necessary in order to avoid the loss of iodine, iodised salt should be packed in air tight 
bags of either high density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) (laminated or non- 
laminated) or LDPE-lined jute bags (Grade 1803 DW jute bags lined with 150 gauge 
polyethylene sheet). In many countries, this may require a major switch form conventional 
packaging materials made of straw or jute. The cost of adding extra iodine to compensate for its 
loss from cheaper packaging (i.e., straw or jute) must be weighed against the cost of switching to 
the above expensive packing material. 



An alternative method for the determination of halogens by using silver nitrate is being studied. 



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10.2 Bulk packing units should not exceed 50 kg (in accordance with International Labour 
Organization (ILO) Conventions) to avoid the use of hooks for lifting the bags. 

10.3 Bags that have already been used for packing other articles such as fertilizers, cement, 
chemicals, etc. Should not be reused for packing iodised salt. 

10.4 The distribution network should be streamlined so as to reduce the interval between 
iodisation and consumption of salt. 

10.5 Iodised salt should not be exposed to rain, excessive humidity or direct sunlight at any stage 
of storage, transportation or sale. 

10.6 Bags of iodised salt shall be stored only in covered rooms or "godowns" that have adequate 
ventilation. 

10.7 The consumer should be similarly advised to store iodised salt in such a manner as to protect 
it from direct exposure to moisture, heat and sunlight. 

11. LABELLING 

In addition to the requirements of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged 
Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, Rev. 2-1999) the following specific provisions apply: 

11.1 THE NAME OF THE PRODUCT 

11.1.1 The name of the product, as declared on the label shall be "salt". 

11.1.2 The name "salt" shall have in its close proximity a declaration of either "Food Grade" or 
"Cooking Salt" or "Table Salt". 

11.1.3 Only when salt contains one or more ferrocyanide salts, added to the brine during the 
crystallization step, the term "dendritic" could be included accompanying the name. 

11.1.4 Where salt is used as a carrier for one or more nutrients, and sold as such for public health 
reasons, the name of the product shall be declared properly on the label, for example "salt 
fluoridated", "salt iodated", "salt iodized", "salt fortified with iron", "salt fortified with vitamins" 
and so on, as appropriate. 

11.1.5 An indication of either the origin, according to the description on Section 2, or the method 
of production may be declared on the label, provided such indication does not mislead or deceive 
the consumer. 

11.2 LABELLING OF NON-RETAIL CONTAINERS 

Information for non-retail containers shall either be given on the container or in accompanying 
documents, except that the name of the product, lot identification and name and address of the 
manufacturer or packer shall appear on the container. However, lot identification and the name 
and address of the manufacturer or packer may be replaced by an identification mark, provided 
that such mark is clearly identifiable with the accompanying documents. 



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APPENDIX A 
METHOD FOR SAMPLING OF FOOD GRADE SALT FOR DETERMINATION OF 

SODIUM CHLORIDE 

A.L SCOPE 

This method specifies the sampling procedure to be appUed when determining the main 
component in order to assess the food grade quality of sodium chloride (salt) as provided for in 
the Codex Standard for Food Grade Salt, Section 3: "Essential Composition and Quality Factors". 
The criterion to be used for acceptance or rejection of a lot or consignment on the basis of this 
sample is also provided. 

A,2, FIELD OF APPLICATION 

This method is applicable to the sampling of any type of salt intended for use as food, either 
prepacked or in bulk. 

A.3. PRINCIPLE 

This method represents a variables sampling procedure for mean quality: blended bulk sample 

analysis. 

A blended bulk sample is produced in such a way that it is representative of the lot or 

consignment. 

It is composed of a proportion of items drawn from the lot or consignment to be analyzed. 

Acceptance criterion is on the basis that the mean value obtained from analyses of those blended 

bulk samples must comply with the provision in the Standard. 

A,4, DEFINITIONS 

The terms used in this sampling method refer to those in the "Instructions on Codex Sampling 
Procedures" (CX/MAS 1-1987). 

A,5. EQUIPMENT 

The sampling equipment used should be adapted to the nature of the tests to be carried out (for 
example: sampling by borer, sampling equipment made of chemically inert material, etc.). The 
containers used for collecting the samples should be made of a chemically inert material and 
should be air-tight. 

A,6. PROCEDURE 

A,6.1 PREPACKED SALT 

Sampling may be carried out by "random sampling" or by "systematic sampling". The choice of 
the method to be used depends on the nature of the lot (for example: if the packages are marked 
with successive numbers, systematic sampling may be suitable). 

A.6.1.1 Random sampling 

Draw the n items from the lot in such a way that each item in the lot has the same chance of being 
selected. 

A,6.1.2 Systematic sampling 

If the N units in the lot have been classified and can be numbered from 1 to N, the 1-in-k 
systematic sampling of n items can be obtained as follows: 

a) Determine the k value as k = N/n. (If k is not an integer, then round to the nearest integer). 

b) From the first k items in the lot take one at random and then make every kth item thereafter. 



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A.6.2 SALT IN BULK 

Here, the lot is fictitiously divided into items (strata); a lot with a total mass of m kg is considered 
to be composed of m/100 items. In this case, it is necessary to draw up a "stratified sampling" 
plan appropriate to the lot dimension. The samples are selected from all the strata in proportion to 
the stratum sizes. 

Note: Stratified sampling of a population which can be divided into different subpopul ations (called strata) is 
carried out in such a way that specified proportions of the sample are drawn from the different strata. 

A.6.3 CONSTITUTION OF THE SAMPLE 

A. 6. 3.1 The size and the number of the items forming the sample depend on the type of salt and 
the lot magnitude. The minimum size to be taken into account should be in accordance with one 
of the following specifications according to the circumstances: 

- 250 g of salt in bulk or prepacked in more than 1 kg packages; 

- one package for prepacked salt in 500 g or 1 kg packages. 

Concerning the number of samples to be drawn from the lot, an example of minimum sample 
number that would be picked up, can be found in the document CX/MAS 1-1987, Appendix V, 
Table 3, taking into account the magnitude of the lot and appropriate inspection level, in this case 
generally level 4 (see paragraph 8.4 in the same document). 

A.6.3.2 Combine and mix well the different items drawn from the lot. This blended bulk sample 
constitutes the laboratory sample. More than one laboratory sample may be composed in such a 
manner. 

A,7. ACCEPTANCE CRITERION 

A,7,l Determine the NaCl content (%) of at least two test portions of the laboratory sample. 

A,7.2 Calculate the average of the results obtained for the n test portions of the laboratory sample 
using: 

X = Xn/x (n > 2) 

A,7.3 In accordance with the provision for the relevant NaCl content (%), a lot or a consignment 
shall be considered acceptable if the following condition is verified: 

X . minimum level specified 

A.8. SAMPLING REPORT 

The sampling report should contain the following information: 

a) type and origin of the salt; 

b) alterations of state of the salt (e.g. presence of foreign matter); 

c) date of sampling; 

d) lot or consignment number; 

e) method of packing; 

J) total mass of lot or consignment; 

g) number, unit mass of packages and whether the mass is given net or gross; 

h) number of items sampled; 

i) number, nature and initial position of sampled items; 



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j) number, composition and mass of the bulk sample(s) and the method used to obtain and 

conserve it (them); 

k) names and signature of people who have carried out the sampling. 

A,9. BASIC REFERENCE 

Document CX/MAS 1-1987. 

A, 10. REMARK 

"Laboratory sample" is the "blended bulk sample" described in CX/MAS 1-1987, Appendix IV, 
paragraph 4-B. 



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References: 

- Codex Stan 150, 1985, Rev. 1: 1997, Amendments 3 :2006 (Standard for Food Grade 
Salt). 

- WHO/NUT/96. 13 for the year 2007.